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Oljka – Olea oleuropaea L.

OLIVO

OLJKA – Olea oleuropaea L.

I. Uporabni del

Listi in plod.

II. Aktivne sestavine

* Listi:

  • Sekoiridoidi: oleuropeozid (glavni sestavni del: približno 60–90 mg/g), oleurosid, ligstrozid, oleacin, 11-demetiloleuropeozid, metilni diester oleozid in sekoiridoidni neglikozidni aldehidi (oleacein). Oleuropeozid, imenovan tudi oleuropein, je grenki iridoid, v veliki meri odgovoren za njeno aktivnost in rast. Ta glikozid se hidrolizira z encimi (ß-glukosidaza) v 3,4-dihidroksifeniletanolu (hidroksitirosol). Po mnenju nekaterih avtorjev oleuropein iz oljčnega lista razpade v telesu in tako tvori drugo snov, imenovano enolinat, ki ima sposobnost, da uniči bakterije, viruse in glive, škodljive za telo, medtem ko spodbuja mikrobe, dobre za zdravje. Vendar pa ta izjava nima pomembne znanstvene utemeljitve.
  • Flavonoidi: olivin (čalkona), glikozidi apigenina, luteolin in rutin.
  • Kromogeni glikozidi: verbaskozid ali orobankozid.
  • Grenka osnova: olivamarina.
  • Tanini.
  • Sledi eteričnega olja.
  • Organske soli jabolčne, vinske, mlečne in glikolne kisline.
  • Triterpeni: oleanolinska kislina, ursolinska kislina, uvaol, eritrodiol in maslinska kislina.
  •  Alkaloidi kininovca: kinin in kinidin.
  •  Saponozidi: oleozid, steroleozid.
  • Minerali: kalcij, fosfor, magnezij, silicij, žveplo, kalij, natrij, železo in klor.
  • Drugo: manitol, holin.

* Plod: Olje se stiska iz zrelih plodov (približno dobimo en liter iz 4–5 kg oljk) in je sestavljen iz: nenasičenih maščobnih kislin: oleinska kislina (56–83 %), linolenska kislina (4–20 %) itd.,; nasičene maščobne kisline: palmitinska kislina (8–20 %), stearinska kislina itd.; neumiljiva frakcija vsebuje sterole: beta-sitosterol, holesterol, skvalen, stigmasterol, delta-7-stigmasterol, delta-5-avenasterol, kampesterol; triterpeni.  Majhen delež sekoiridoidne osnove (oleuropein in drugi odgovorni za grenak okus oliv, njihov odstotek se postopoma zmanjšuje, ko oljke dozorevajo) in njihovi derivati, tirosol in hidroksitirosol, ki imata visoko antioksidativno moč in sta zato odgovorna za visoko stabilnost olje. Poleg tega je bogat z vitamini A, E in D. Vsebuje še: voske, gume, pirogalska kislina, karotenoidi, olenolidi, pentatriakontan, levkoantocianidin, oleosterol, oleastranol. Nedavno je bila odkrita prisotnost rastlinskega estrogena v olju oljčne koščice.

III. Farmakološko delovanje

* Listi:

  • Antihipertenziv (oleuropeozid).Oljčni listi učinkujejo antihipertenzivno zaradi sinergističnih učinkov, ki jih imajo med svojimi sestavnimi deli, čeprav je med njimi najverjetneje najbolj aktiven oleuropeozid ali bolj verjetno njegov razgradni produkt, hidroksitirozol, sestavina z vazodilatacijskim delovanjem, ki jo nekateri avtorji povežejo s povečanjem 3’5′ AMPc. Poleg tega ta sestavina povzroči delno inhibicijo angiotenzin pretvarjajočega encima (ACE) in zavira oksidacijo in vitro LDL-holesterola.
  • Koronarna in periferna vazodilatacija (oleuropeozid).
  • Antispazmodičen (oleuropeozid).
  • Antiaritmik (oleuropeozid, ursolna kislina, uvaol).
  • Zmanjšanje srčnega utripa. S poskusi na živalih je bilo ugotovljeno, da oleuropeozid zmanjšuje amplitudo kontrakcije in nekoliko upočasni srčni utrip. V svojem mehanizmu delovanja verjetno vključuje blokade nad kalcijevimi kanalčki. Poleg tega so triterpenski derivati pokazali srčnodepresorno delovanje podobno tistemu, ki ga inducirajo beta-adrenergični blokatorji, kot je propranolol, saj blokira učinke adrenalina in izoprenalina. V preskusih na izoliranih srčnih preddvorih morskih prašičev oleuropeozid zmanjšuje amplitudo kontrakcije in rahlo upočasni srčni utrip (predhodno so na izoliranim srcu nekaterih živalskih vrst opazili negativne inotropne, kronotropne in dromotropne aktivnosti). Zdi se, da posledica ni rezultat delovanja na ravni kalcijevih kanalčkov (Duarte J, Perez O, Zarzuelo A, Jimenez J, Perez-Vizcaino F, Tamargo J. Effects of oleuropeoside in isolated guinea-pig atria. Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):318–22. PMID: 8372147 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]).
  • Diuretik (flavonoidi, oleuropeozid).
  • Spazmolitik in bronhodilatator (oleuropeozid).
  • Rahlo hipoglikemični. Oleuropeozid, uporabljen intravenozno, je pokazal antidiabetično aktivnost, ki je lahko posledica dveh mehanizmov delovanja: povečano izločanje inzulina in indukcijo perifernega ponovnega povrata glukoze.
  • Hipoholesterolemično: prah iz listov in njegovi galenski derivati  bistveno zmanjšajo holesterol, z zmanjšano LDL-frakcije in povečanje HDL.
  • Antimikrobno, protiglivično in protivirusno delovanje (iridoidni glikozidi). V različnih študijah in vitro je bilo ugotovljeno, da ima kalcijev elenolat, derivat elenolske kisline, protivirusne lastnosti. Sposoben je inhibirati viruse (rinovirus, miksovirus, herpes simpleks tipa I in II, herpes zoster, hepatitis B, polio 1, 2 in 3, gripa in parainfluenca, virus Epstein-Barr, itd.), bakterije in protozojske parazite (lactobacillus plantarum, brevis, pediococcus cerevisiae, staphylococcus aureus, bacillus subtilis, E. coli, salamonella tyhimurium, pseudomonas fluorescens itd.). Mehanizmi, s katerimi delujejo, vključujejo: ovira proizvajanje esencialnih aminokislin virusov. Inaktivira viruse, zato prepreči širjenje virusne okužbe. Prodre neposredno v okužene celice in preprečuje razmnoževanje virusov. V primeru retrovirusov lahko nevtralizira proizvodnjo transkriptaze in proteaze. Ti encimi so bistvenega pomena za retroviruse, kot so HIV, in da se spremeni ARN zdrave celice. Spodbuja fagocitozo. Vendar je treba narediti veliko več študij na živalih in tudi na ljudeh, da se potrdi ali ovrže te potencialne učinke izvlečka oljčnih listov.
  • Antioksidantni učinek (oleuropein, flavonoidi). Pomagajo nevtralizirati proste radikale in imajo pomembno vlogo pri zaščiti arterijskih sten.
  • Antipiretik (grenka osnova).
  • Holagogični učinek (oleinski gliceridi).
  • Protivnetno delovanje (triterpen).
  • Proti razjedam (oleanolinska kislina, ursolinska kislina).
  •  Nekateri avtorji mu prisojajo tudi lastnosti delovanja proti raku zaradi vsebnosti apigenin glikozida in inhibitornega združevanja trombocitov in proizvodnje trombosana A2.

* Plod (olive) notranja uporaba: olje, ki ima zelo uravnoteženo sestavo mononenasičenih maščobnih kislin, deluje na naslednje načine:
– Holeretično in holagogično (spodbuja krčenje žolčnika).
– Znižanje holesterola.
– Zaščita želodčne sluznice.
– Rahlo odvajalo.
– Antioksidantno. Sekoiridoidne osnove, ki vsebuje oljčno olje (hidroksitirosol, tirosol in oleuropein), so odgovorne, vsaj delno, za zaščito pred oksidacijo LDL, ugotovljeno pri ljudeh, in za inhibicijo pri ekspresiji endotelijskih adhezijskih molekul, ki so bistvenega pomena za nabiranje levkocitov v zgodnjih fazah aterogeneze. Po drugi strani se zdi, da oleinska kislina, čeprav brez pomembnih neposrednih učinkov na raven holesterola, povzroča motnje pri značilnem vnetnem odzivu v zgodnjih fazah aterogeneze.
Zunanja uporaba: demulcent in mehčanje.

IV. Indikacije

* Listi:

  • Hipertenzija.
  • Preprečevanje in zdravljenje arterioskleroze.
  • Koronarna insuficienca.
  • Od inzulina neodvisni diabetes tipa II.
  • Hiperholesterolemija.
  • Okužbe dihal, bronhitis, emfizem in astma.
  • Druge indikacije: hiperurikemija, povišana telesna temperatura, artritis in artralgije. Nekateri avtorji ga priporočajo tudi pri AIDS-u, kandidozi, sindromu kronične utrujenosti in v primeru fibromialgije.

* Plod (olive) notranja uporaba: hiperholesterolemija in hiperlipidemija. Preprečevanje arterioskleroze. Žolčni kamni. Zaprtje. Zunanja uporaba: dermatitis, suhi ekcemi, luskavica, opekline, ihtioza, dishidroza.

V. Kontraindikacije

  • Preobčutljivost na nekatere sestavine.
  • Hipotenzija.
  • Nosečnost. Oljka se ne sme uporabljati med nosečnostjo, ker ni podatkov, ki bi podpirali njeno varnost. Izvedene so bile študije pri različnih živalskih vrstah z uporabo nekajkrat večjih odmerkov kot pri človeku, ki niso pokazale embriotoksičnih ali teratogenih učinkov. Vendar pa ni bilo kliničnih preskušanj na ljudeh, zato je uporaba oljke sprejemljiva le, če ni varnejših terapevtskih alternativ.
  • Dojenje. Oljka se ne sme uporabljati med dojenjem, ker ni podatkov, ki bi podpirali njeno varnost. Ni znano, ali se sestavine oljke izločajo v večjih količinah z maternim mlekom in ali to lahko vpliva na otroka. Priporočljivo je, da se preneha z dojenjem ali izogne jemanju oljke.

VI. Previdnostni ukrepi in medsebojno vplivanje z drugimi zdravili

Niso bili opisani.

VII. Medsebojno vplivanje z drugimi zdravili:

  • Antihipertenzivi: oljka lahko poveča učinke teh zdravil, zato je priporočljiva prilagoditev odmerka, če se uporabljata skupaj. Nekatera antihipertenzivna zdravila so:
    – Inhibitorji angiotenzin pretvarjajočega encima (IACE). Proizvajajo konkurenčno blokado pretvarjajočega encima, ki pretvarja angiotenzin I v angiotenzin II, kar zmanjšuje plazmatične in histične vrednosti angiotenzina II. To zmanjšanje lahko pojasni njihov učinek znižanja krvnega tlaka, ker je angiotenzin II močan vazokonstriktor arterij in ven, zviša simpatični tonus in sprošča vazopresin in aldosteron, kar povzroči zadrževanje vode in soli. Poleg tega inhibicija pretvarjajočega encima preprečuje degradacijo kininov, ki so sami močni vazodilatatorji in povečajo sproščanje vazodilatacijskih prostaglandinov (E2 in F2) in dušikovega oksida. Vsa ta delovanja pojasnjujejo, zakaj inhibicija pretvarjajočega encima povzroča vazodilatacijo arterij in ven in zmanjša periferni vaskularni upor in krvni tlak. Nekatera zdravila iz te skupine so: benazepril, kaptopril, enalapril, fozinopril, lizinopril, kinapril, ramipril in trandolapril.
  • Zaviralci adrenergičnih receptorjev beta. Proizvajajo konkurenčno in reverzibilno blokado delovanj kateholaminov s pomočjo stimulacije adrenergičnih receptorjev beta. Zmanjšujejo periferni vaskularni upor zaradi mešanega mehanizma, pri katerem sodelujejo zaviralci beta-2-presinaptičnih receptorjev, inhibiranje izločanja renina in povečano sintezo vaskularne prostaglandine I2 ter dušikovega oksida. Nekatera zdravila v tej skupini so: acebutolol, atenolol, bisoprolol, karteolol, metoprolol, nadolol, penbutolol, pindolol, propranolol in timolol.
  • Blokatorji kalcijevih kanalčkov. Zavirajo dotok kalcija skozi kalcijevih kanalčkov tipa L membran vzburjenih celic. Zato zmanjšajo koncentracijo vaskularnega kalcija in povzročajo vazodilatacijo arterij in ven, ki zmanjša periferni vaskularni upor in kot posledico krvni tlak. Nekatera zdravila v tej skupini so: verapamil, dialtiazem in nifedipin.
  • Diuretiki. Ta zdravila povzročijo čisto izgubo telesnega natrija in vode z urinom, saj delujejo neposredno na ledvice. Nekatera zdravila v tej skupini so: furosemid, torasemid, indapamid, ksipamid, metolazon piretanid, spironolakton, amilorid itd.
  • Peroralni hipoglikemiki. Oleuropein lahko poveča delovanje peroralnih hipoglikemikov. Morda je potrebna prilagoditevodmerka uporabljenega zdravila.
  • Po mnenju nekaterih avtorjev lahko tudi poveča delovanje antikoagulantov in antiagregantov trombocitov.

VIII. Stranski učinki in toksičnost

Ni bilo neželenih reakcij pri priporočenih terapevtskih odmerkih.
Edini znani stranski učinek zaradi uporabe izvlečka oljčnih listov je možnost povzročitve Herxheimerjeve reakcije, ki jo povzroči hitro uničenje bakterij. Zaradi svojih antimikrobnih in protivirusnih lastnosti izvleček zelenih listov oljke povzroči uničenje velikih količin škodljivih bakterij v kratkem času, kar lahko povzroči, da bakterije sprožijo visoko raven toksinov, ko umrejo. Toksični stranski produkti hitrega uničenja lahko v organizmu povzročijo Herxheimerjevo reakcijo, podobno alergijski reakciji, za katero so značilni naslednji simptomi: mrzlica, nizka vročina, nočno znojenje, bolečine v mišicah, boleči in otekli sklepi, slabost, bruhanje, otekline in izpuščaji, depresija in izguba kratkotrajnega spomina. Omenjena reakcija izgine z zmanjšanjem odmerka ali s suspendiranjem, dokler simptomi ne izginejo. Pojav te reakcije je pozitiven, ker kaže na odlično reakcijo na izvleček zelenih list oljke pri zdravljenju okužb.

Viri

Študije o učinku znižanja krvnega tlaka:

– Benkhalti F, Legssyer A, Gómez P, Paz E, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F, el Boustani ES. Département de Biologie, Unité de Recherche Nutrition- Santé, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech, Morocco. Effects of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds on LDL oxidation and vasorelaxation activity. Therapie. 2003 Mar-Apr;58(2):133-7. PMID: 12942853 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Cherif S, Rahal N, Haouala M, Hizaoui B, Dargouth F, Gueddiche M, Kallel Z, Balansard G, Boukef K. Service de Cardiologie, Hôpital Militaire, Tunis. A clinical trial of a titrated Olea extract in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension. J Pharm Belg. 1996 Mar-Apr;51(2):69-71. PMID: 8786521 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fehri B, Aiache JM, Memmi A, Korbi S, Yacoubi MT, Mrad S, Lamaison JL. Département de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie, Société des Industries Pharmaceutiques de Tunisie, Fondouk Choucha, Radès. Hypotension, hypoglycemia and hypouricemia recorded after repeated administration of aqueous leaf extract of Olea europaea L. J Pharm Belg. 1994 Mar- Apr;49(2):101-8. PMID: 8035301 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Hansen K, Nyman U, Smitt UW, Adsersen A, Gudiksen L, Rajasekharan S, Pushpangadan P. Department of Pharmacognosy, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Copenhagen, Denmark. In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-hypertensive effect based on inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Aug 11;48(1):43-51. PMID: 8569246 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Hansen, K, Adsersen, A, Brøgger Christensen S, Jensen Søren Rosendal, Nyman U, Wagner Smitt U. Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from Olea europea and Olea lancea. Phytomedicine, vol: 2, issue: 4, pages: 319-325, 1996.
– Julius-Bijlama JA. A review of the investigations on hypotensive substances from the leaves of the olive tree, Olea europaea L. Pharm Weekbl. 1961 May
27;96:417-34. PMID: 13791008 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA, Abdallah DM, Nassar NN, Okpanyi SN, Kreuter MH. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea) in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52(11):797-802. PMID: 12489249 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Lasserre B, Kaiser R, Pham Huu Chanh, Ifansyah N, Gleye J, Moulis C. Effects on rats of aqueous extracts of plants used in folk medicine as antihypertensive agents. Naturwissenschaften. 1983 Feb;70(2):95-6. PMID:6843684 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Rauwald HW, Brehm O, Odenthal KP. Screening of Nine Vasoactive Medicinal Plants for their Possible Calcium Antagonistic Activity. Strategy of Selection and Isolation for the Active Principles of Olea europaea and Peucedanum ostruthium. Phytotherapie Research 8 (1994) S. 135 140.
– Ribeiro Rde A, Fiuza de Melo MM, De Barros F, Gomes C, Trolin G. Acute antihypertensive effect in conscious rats produced by some medicinal plants used in the state of Sao Paulo. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986 Mar;15(3):261-9. PMID: 3724206 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Rodriguez-Rodriguez R, Perona JS, Herrera MD, Ruiz-Gutierrez V. Instituto de la Grasa (CSIC), Avenida Padre Garcia Tejero 4, 41012 Seville, Spain. Triterpenic compounds from “orujo” olive oil elicit vasorelaxation in aorta from spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2096-102. PMID: 16536581 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Somova LI, Shode FO, Ramnanan P, Nadar A. Department of Human Physiology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa. Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):299-305. PMID: 12648829 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Tahraoui A, El-Hilaly J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. UFR Physiology-Pharmacology, Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Dhar El Mehraz, USMBA, BP 1976 Atlas Fez, Morocco. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar1;110(1):105-17. Epub 2006 Sep 23. PMID: 17052873 [PubMed – in process].
– Zarzuelo A, Duarte J, Jimenez J, Gonzalez M, Utrilla MP. Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Spain. Vasodilator effect of olive leaf. Planta Med. 1991 Oct;57 (5):417-9. PMID: 1798793 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o delovanju na srčno-žilni sistem:

-Duarte J, Perez O, Zarzuelo A, Jimenez J, Perez-Vizcaino F, Tamargo J. Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Spain. Effects of oleuropeoside in isolated guinea-pig atria. Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):318-22. PMID: 8372147 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Somova LI, Shode FO, Mipando M. Department of Human Physiology University of Durban-Westville, Durban, South Africa. Cardiotonic and antidysrhythmic effects of oleanolic and ursolic acids, methyl maslinate and uvaol. Phytomedicine. 2004 Feb;11(2-3):121-9. PMID: 15070161 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Bellosta S, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan, Italy. Oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, enhances nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Life Sci. 1998;62(6):541-6. PMID: 9464466 [PubMed- indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o zniževanju lipidov:

– Bennani-Kabchi N, Fdhil H, Cherrah Y, Kehel L, el Bouayadi F, Amarti A, Saidi M, Marquie G. Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Med V, Rabat, Maroc. Effects of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves in hypercholesterolemic insulin-resistant sand rats. Therapie. 1999 Nov- Dec;54(6):717-23. PMID: 10709446 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Massaro M, Carluccio MA, De Caterina R. Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica del CNR, Pisa. Direct vascular antiatherogenic effects of oleic acid: a clue to the cardioprotective effects of the Mediterranean diet. Cardiologia. 1999Jun;44(6):507-13. PMID: 10443051 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Massaro M, Carluccio MA, Paolicchi A, Bosetti F, Solaini G, De Caterina R. Laboratory for Thrombosis and Vascular Research, CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy. Mechanisms for reduction of endothelial activation by oleate: inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB through antioxidant effects. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Aug-Sep;67(2-3):175-81. PMID: 12324238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Moreno JA, López-Miranda J, Gómez P, Benkhalti F, El Boustani ES, Pérez- Jiménez F. Unidad de Lípidos y Arteriosclerosis. Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía. Córdoba. España. Effect of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil on LDL oxidation resistance. Med Clin (Barc). 2003 Feb 8;120(4):128-31. PMID:12605836 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Perona JS, Canizares J, Montero E, Sanchez-Dominguez JM, Ruiz-GutierrezV. Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas,41012 Sevilla, Spain. Plasma lipid modifications in elderly people after administration of two virgin olive oils of the same variety (Olea europaea var. hojiblanca) with different triacylglycerol composition. Br J Nutr. 2003Jun;89(6):819-26. PMID: 12828801 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Galli C. University of Milan, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Italy. Oleuropein protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation. Life Sci.
1994;55(24):1965-71. PMID: 7990657 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o hipoglikemičnem delovanju:

– Al-Azzawie HF, Alhamdani MS. Biochemistry Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of oleuropein in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Life Sci. 2006 Feb16;78(12):1371-7. Epub 2005 Oct 19. PMID: 16236331 [PubMed – indexed forMEDLINE].
– Bennani-Kabchi N, Fdhil H, Cherrah Y, El Bouayadi F, Kehel L, Marquie G. UFR Nutrition Aliment Santé, Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed V, Avenue IBn Battouta, BP 1014 Rabat, Maroc. Therapeutic effect of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in obese and prediabetic sand rats (Psammomys obesus). Ann Pharm Fr. 2000 Jul;58(4):271-7. PMID: 10915976 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fehri B, Aiache JM, Memmi A, Korbi S, Yacoubi MT, Mrad S, Lamaison JL. Département de Pharmacologie et de Toxicologie, Société des Industries Pharmaceutiques de Tunisie, Fondouk Choucha, Radès. Hypotension, hypoglycemia and hypouricemia recorded after repeated administration of aqueous leaf extract of Olea europaea L. J Pharm Belg. 1994 Mar- Apr;49(2):101-8. PMID: 8035301 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Gonzalez M, Zarzuelo A, Gamez MJ, Utrilla MP, Jimenez J, Osuna I. Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Granada, Spain. Hypoglycemic activity of olive leaf. PlantaMed. 1992;58:513-5. PMID: 1484890 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Onderoglu S, Sozer S, Erbil KM, Ortac R, Lermioglu F. Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Turkey. The evaluation of long- term effects of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999;51:1305-12. PMID: 10632089 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o antioksidativnem delovanju:

– Altarejos J, Salido S, Perez-Bonilla M, Linares-Palomino PJ, van Beek TA, Nogueras M, Sanchez A. Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain. Preliminary assay on the radical scavenging activity of olive wood extracts. Fitoterapia. 2005 Jun;76(3-4):348-51. PMID: 15890466 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Baycin D, Altiok E, Ulku S, Bayraktar O. Biochemical Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL), Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Gülbahçe Köyü, 35430 Urla-Izmir, Turkey. Adsorption of olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) antioxidants on silk fibroin. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb21;55(4):1227-36. Epub 2007 Jan 30. PMID: 17261014 [PubMed – in process].
– Bogani P, Galli C, Villa M, Visioli F. Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milan, Italy. Postprandial anti- inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil. Atherosclerosis.2007 Jan;190(1):181-6. Epub 2006 Feb 20. PMID: 16488419 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Bouaziz M, Chamkha M, Sayadi S. Laboratoire des Bioprocédés, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, BP K, 3038 Sfax, Tunisia. Comparative study on phenolic content and antioxidant activity during maturation of the olive cultivar Chemlali from Tunisia. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Aug 25;52(17):5476-81. PMID: 15315388 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Briante R, Febbraio F, Nucci R. Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR Via Marconi, 10, I-80125 Naples. Antioxidant/prooxidant effects of dietary non- flavonoid phenols on the Cu2+-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Chem Biodivers. 2004 Nov;1(11):1716-29. PMID: 17191812 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Briante R, Patumi M, Terenziani S, Bismuto E, Febbraio F, Nucci R. Istituto diBiochimica delle Proteine ed Enzimologia del CNR, Via Marconi 10, 80125Napoli, Italy. Olea europaea L. leaf extract and derivatives: antioxidant properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4934-40. PMID: 12166985 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Farag RS, Mahmoud EA, Basuny AM. Olive leaf juice could be edible oil antioxidant. International Journal of Food Science and Technology (Blackwell Publishing). Volume 42, Pages 107-115, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01374.
– Fitó M, Covas MI, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Vila J, de la Torre C, Marrugat J. Unidad de Lípidos y Epidemiología Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Barcelona. Olive oil and inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation. Role of phenolic compounds. Med Clin (Barc). 2000 Jul1;115(5):166-9. PMID: 10996871 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Galli C, Visioli F. University of Milan, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Italy. Antioxidant and other activities of phenolics in olives/olive oil, typical components of the Mediterranean diet. Lipids. 1999;34 Suppl:S23-6. PMID:10419084 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Montilla MP, Agil A, Navarro MC, Jimenez MI, Garcia-Granados A, Parra A, Cabo MM. Antioxidant activity of maslinic acid, a triterpene derivative obtained from Olea europaea. Planta Med. 2003 May;69(5):472-4. PMID: 12802735 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Moreno M, Chamorro MC, Poza MA, de la Fuente P. Propiedades antioxidantes del hidroxitirosol procedente de la hoja de olivo (“Olea europaea L.). Revista de tecnología e higiene de los alimentos, ISSN 0300-5755, Nº 368,2005, pags. 134-139.
– Paiva-Martins F, Gordon MH. Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, number 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal. Isolation and characterization of the antioxidant component 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl 4- formyl-3-formylmethyl-4-hexenoate from olive (Olea europaea) leaves. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Sep;49(9):4214 -9. PMID: 11559113 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Valderrama R, Corpas FJ, Carreras A, Gomez-Rodriguez MV, Chaki M, Pedrajas JR, Fernandez-Ocana A, Del Rio LA, Barroso JB. Grupo de Señalización Molecular y Sistemas Antioxidants en Plantas, Unidad Asociada al CSIC (EEZ), Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad de Jaén, Spain. The dehydrogenase-mediated recycling of NADPH is a key antioxidant system against salt-induced oxidative stress in olive plants. Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Jul;29(7):1449-59. PMID: 17080966 [PubMed – indexed forMEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Caruso D, Plasmati E, Patelli R, Mulinacci N, Romani A, Galli G, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133 Milan. Hydroxytyrosol, as a component of olive mill waste water, is dose- dependently absorbed and increases the antioxidant capacity of rat plasma. Free Radic Res. 2001 Mar;34(3):301-5. PMID: 11264904 [PubMed- indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Galli C, Plasmati E, Viappiani S, Hernandez A, Colombo C, Sala A. University of Milan, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan, Italy. Olive phenol hydroxytyrosol prevents passive smoking-induced oxidative stress. Circulation. 2000 Oct 31;102(18):2169-71. PMID: 11056087 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Bellomo G, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy. Free radical-scavenging properties of olive oil polyphenols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jun 9;247(1):60-4. PMID: 9636654 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Wojcikowski K, Stevenson L, Leach D, Wohlmuth H, Gobe G. Molecular and Cellular Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Antioxidant capacity of 55 medicinal herbs traditionally used to treat the urinary system: a comparison using a sequential three-solvent extraction process. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):103-9. PMID: 17309384 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o antimikrobnem učinku:

– Battinelli L, Daniele C, Cristiani M, Bisignano G, Saija A, Mazzanti G. Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, University La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. In vitro antifungal and anti-elastase activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. fruit. Phytomedicine. 2006 Sep;13(8):558-63. Epub 2005 Nov 2. PMID: 16920510 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Bisignano G, Lagana MG, Trombetta D, Arena S, Nostro A, Uccella N, Mazzanti G, Saija A. Department Farmaco-Biologico, University of Messina, Contrada Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy. In vitro antibacterial activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001Apr 20;198(1):9-13. Erratum in: FEMS Microbiol Lett 2001 Jul 10;201(1):117. PMID: 11325546 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]. – Bisignano G, Tomaino A, Lo Cascio R, Crisafi G, Uccella N, Saija A. Department Farmaco-Biologico, University of Messina, Italy. On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hyydroxytytosol. J Pharm Pharmacol.1999 Aug;51(8):971-4. PMID: 10504039 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Caturla N, Perez-Fons L, Estepa A, Micol V. Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández. Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202- Elche, Alicante, Spain. Differential effects of oleuropein, a biophenol from Olea europaea, on anionic and zwiterionic phospholipid model membranes. Chem Phys Lipids. 2005 Oct;137(1-2):2-17. Epub 2005 Jun 21. PMID: 16002058 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fleming HP, Walter WM Jr, Etchells JL. Antimicrobial properties of oleuropein and products of its hydrolysis from green olives. Appl Microbiol. 1973Nov;26(5):777-82. PMID: 4762397 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fleming HP, Walter WM Jr, Etchells JL. Isolation of a Bacterial Inhibitor from Green Olives. Appl Microbiol. 1969 Nov;18(5):856-860. PMID: 16349868 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher].
– Furneri PM, Piperno A, Sajia A, Bisignano G. Department of Microbiological Sciences and Gynecological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Antimycoplasmal activity of hydroxytyrosol. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.2004 Dec;48(12):4892-4. PMID: 15561875 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Juven B, Henis Y, Jacoby B. Studies on the mechanism of the antimicrobial action of oleuropein. J Appl Bacteriol. 1972;35:559-67. PMID: 4651255 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Markin D, Duek L, Berdicevsky I. Department of Microbiology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves. Mycoses. 2003 Apr;46(3-4):132-6. PMID:12870202 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Walter WM Jr, Fleming HP, Etchells JL. Preparation of antimicrobial compounds by hydrolysis of oleuropein from green olives. Appl Microbiol. 1973Nov;26(5):773-6. PMID: 4762396 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o antiviralnem učinku:

– Aziz NH, Farag SE, Mousa LA, Abo-Zaid MA. National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios. 1998;93:43-54. PMID: 9670554 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Bao J, Zhang DW, Zhang JZ, Huang PL, Huang PL, Lee-Huang S. Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Computational study of bindings of olive leaf extract (OLE) to HIV-1 fusion protein gp41. FEBS Lett. 2007 May 21; [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 17537437 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher].
– Bisignano G, Tomaino A, Lo Cascio R, Crisafi G, Uccella N, Saija A. Department Farmaco-Biologico, University of Messina, Italy. On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J Pharm Pharmacol.1999;51:971-4. PMID: 10504039 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Elliott GA, Buthala DA, DeYoung EN. Preliminary safety studies with calcium elenolate, an antiviral agent. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother (Bethesda).
1969;9:173-6. PMID: 5396484 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
– Heinze JE, Hale AH, Carl PL. Specificity of the antiviral agent calcium elenolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Oct;8(4):421-5. PMID: 53031 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Hirschman SZ. Inactivation of DNA polymerases of murine leukaemia viruses by calcium elenolate. Nat New Biol. 1972 Aug 30;238(87):277-9. PMID:4116501 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
– Lee-Huang S, Zhang L, Huang PL, Chang YT, Huang PL. Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Aug 8;307(4):1029-37. PMID: 12878215 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Lee-Huang S, Huang P, Huang P. New York University School of Medicine, New York, United States. Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract and synergism with HAART. Int Conf AIDS. 2004 Jul 11-16; 15. WePeA5651.
– Lee-Huang S, Huang PL, Zhang D, Lee JW, Bao J, Sun Y, Chang YT, Zhang J, Huang PL. Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Discovery of small-molecule HIV-1 fusion and integrase inhibitors oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol: part I. integrase inhibition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Mar 23;354(4):872-8. Epub 2007 Jan 24. PMID: 17275783 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Micol V, Caturla N, Perez-Fons L, Mas V, Perez L, Estepa A. Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular, Universidad Miguel Hernández, E-03202-Elche, Alicante, Spain. The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV). Antiviral Res. 2005 Jun;66(2-3):129-36. Epub 2005 Apr 18. PMID: 15869811 [PubMed – indexed forMEDLINE].
– Renis HE. Inactivation of myxoviruses by calcium elenolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1975 Aug;8(2):194-9. PMID: 1180544 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Renis HE. In vitro antiviral activity of calcium elenolate. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother (Bethesda). 1969;9:167-72. PMID: 5396483 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Roxas M, Jurenka J. Thorne Research, PO Box 25, Dover, ID 83825, USA. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Mar;12(1):25-48. PMID:17397266 [PubMed – in process].
– Zhu YM, Shen JK, Wang HK, Cosentino LM, Lee KH. Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 294 Taiyuan Road, 200031, Shanghai, China. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of oleanolic acid derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001 Dec 17;11(24):3115-8. PMID: 11720855 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o antimalaričnem učinku:

– Njoroge GN, Bussmann RW. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture Science and Technology, Botany Department, P,O, Box 62000, Nairobi, Kenya.
Diversity and utilization of antimalarial ethnophytotherapeutic remedies among the Kikuyus (Central Kenya). J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2006 Feb 1;2:8.PMID: 16451716 [PubMed – in process].

Študije o protivnetnem učinku:

– Marquez-Martin A, De La Puerta R, Fernandez-Arche A, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Yaqoob P. Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.) Avda, Padre García Tejero n degrees 4, 41012 Seville, Spain. Modulation of cytokine secretion by pentacyclic triterpenes from olive pomace oil in human mononuclear cells. Cytokine. 2006 Dec;36(5-6):211-7. Epub 2007 Feb 9. PMID: 17292619 [PubMed – in process].
– Pieroni A, Heimler D, Pieters L, van Poel B, Vlietinck AJ. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium. In vitro anti- complementary activity of flavonoids from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Pharmazie. 1996 Oct;51(10):765-8. PMID: 8941947 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o anti ulcerskem delovanju:

– Cristoni A, Nizzola R, Malandrino S, Pifferi G. Laboratorio Ricerca, Inverni della Beffa, Milano, Italy. Synthesis and antiulcer activity of uvaol hemiphthalate derivatives. Farmaco. 1994 Apr;49(4):281-4. PMID: 8049009 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Farina C, Pinza M, Pifferi G. SmithKline Beecham SpA, Baranzate, Milan, Italy. Synthesis and anti-ulcer activity of new derivatives of glycyrrhetic, oleanolic and ursolic acids. Farmaco. 1998 Jan;53(1):22-32. PMID: 9543723 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Sánchez M, Theoduloz C, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Razmilic I, Yáñez T, Rodríguez JA. Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile. Gastroprotective and ulcer-healing activity of oleanolic acid derivatives: in vitro-in vivo relationships. Life Sci. 2006 Aug 29;79(14):1349-56. Epub 2006 Apr 26. PMID: 16712876 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o delovanju proti raku:

– Abaza L, Talorete TP, Yamada P, Kurita Y, Zarrouk M, Isoda H. Laboratory of Characterization and Olive Oil Quality, Biotechnology Center. Induction of Growth Inhibition and Differentiation of Human Leukemia HL-60 Cells by a Tunisian Gerboui Olive Leaf Extract. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007May;71(5):1306-12. Epub 2007 May 7. PMID: 17485840 [PubMed – in process].

Študije o stimulacijskem delovanju na ščitnico:

– Al-Qarawi AA, Al-Damegh MA, ElMougy SA. Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Effect of freeze dried extract of Olea europaea on the pituitary-thyroid axis in rats. Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):286-7. PMID:12164280 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o antiagregacijskem učinku:

– Petroni A, Blasevich M, Salami M, Papini N, Montedoro GF, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and eicosanoid production by phenolic components of olive oil. Thromb Res. 1995 Apr 15;78(2):151-60. PMID: 7482432 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Petroni A, Blasevich M, Salami M, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy. A phenolic antioxidant extracted from olive oil inhibits platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in vitro. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1994;75:169-72. PMID: 7532888 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Singh I, Mok M, Christensen AM, Turner AH, Hawley JA. School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. The effects of polyphenols in olive leaves on platelet function. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007 Mar 6; [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 17346951 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher].

Študije o pomlajevalnem delovanju:

– Katsiki M, Chondrogianni N, Chinou L, Rivett AJ, Gonos ES. National Hellenic Research Foundation, Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Aging, Athens, Greece. The Olive Constituent Oleuropein Exhibits Proteasome Stimulatory Properties In Vitro and Confers Life Span Extension of Human Embryonic Fibroblasts. Rejuvenation Res. 2007 May 18; [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 17518699 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher].

Študije o blagodejnih učinkih oljčnega olja:

– Andrikopoulos NK, Kaliora AC, Assimopoulou AN, Papageorgiou VP. Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Science of Dietetics-Nutrition, Harokopio University, Kallithea, Athens, Greece. Inhibitory activity of minor polyphenolic and nonpolyphenolic constituents of olive oil against in vitro low- density lipoprotein oxidation. J Med Food. 2002 Spring;5(1):1-7. PMID:12511107 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Carluccio MA, Siculella L, Ancora MA, Massaro M, Scoditti E, Storelli C, Visioli F, Distante A, De Caterina R. C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce, Italy. Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation: antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Apr 1;23(4):622-9. Epub 2003 Feb 20.
PMID: 12615669 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Covas MI, Nyyssonen K, Poulsen HE, Kaikkonen J, Zunft HJ, Kiesewetter H, Gaddi A, de la Torre R, Mursu J, Baumler H, Nascetti S, Salonen JT, Fito M, Virtanen J, Marrugat J, EUROLIVE Study Group. Municipal Institute for Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain. The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep
5;145(5):333-41. Summary for patients in: Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep5;145(5):I53. PMID: 16954359 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Covas MI, Fito M, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Sebastia N, de la Torre-Boronat C, Marrugat J. Unitat de Lípids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Carrer Doctor Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: binding to human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and effect on LDL oxidation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res.2000;20(3-4):49-54. PMID: 11314237 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Covas MI, Fito M, Marrugat J, Miro E, Farre M, de la Torre R, Gimeno E, Lopez-Sabater MC, Lamuela-Raventos R, de la Torre-Boronat MC. Unitat de Lípids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Carrer Dr. Aiguader, 80, 08003 Barcelona, Espagne. Coronary disease protective factors: antioxidant effect of olive oil. Therapie. 2001 Sep- Oct;56(5):607- 11. PMID: 11806301 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fito M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, Marti J, Munoz D, Schroder H, Alcantara M, Pujadas-Bastardes M, Marrugat J, Lopez-Sabater MC, Bruguera J, Covas MI. 1Unitat de Lípids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain. Anti-inflammatory effect of virgin olive oil in stable coronary disease patients: a randomized, crossover, controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar 21; [Epub ahead of print]. PMID:17375118 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]. – Fitó M, Cladellas M, de la Torre R, Martí J, Alcántara M, Pujadas-BastardesM, Marrugat J, Bruguera J, López-Sabater MC, Vila J, Covas MI; The members of the SOLOS Investigators. Unitat de Lípids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular,Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Carrer Doctor Aiguader,Barcelona, Spain. Antioxidant effect of virgin olive oil in patients with stable coronary heart disease: a randomized, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):149-58. Epub 2005 Feb 12. PMID: 15939067 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fito M, Gimeno E, Covas MI, Miro E, Lopez-Sabater Mdel C, Farre M, de TR, Marrugat J. Unitat de Lípids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Médica IMIM, Barcelona, Spain. Postprandial and short-term effects of dietary virgin olive oil on oxidant/antioxidant status. Lipids. 2002Mar;37(3):245-51. PMID: 11942474 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fito M, Covas MI, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Vila J, de la Torre C, Marrugat J. Unidad de Lípidos y Epidemiología Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (IMIM), Barcelona. Olive oil and inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation. Role of phenolic compounds. Med Clin (Barc). 2000 Jul1;115(5):166-9. PMID: 10996871 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fito M, Covas MI, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Vila J, Torrents L, de la Torre C, Marrugat J. Unitat de Lípids i Epidemiologia Cardiovascular, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Medica, Barcelona, Spain. Protective effect of olive oil and its phenolic compounds against low density lipoprotein oxidation. Lipids. 2000Jun;35(6):633-8. PMID: 10901425 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Marrugat J, Covas MI, Fito M, Schroder H, Miro-Casas E, Gimeno E, Lopez- Sabater MC, de la Torre R, Farre M; SOLOS Investigators. Lipids and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Research Unit, Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica, Carrer Dr Aiguader 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Effects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidation–a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Jun;43(3):140-7. Epub 2004 Jan 6. PMID:15168036 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Caruso D, Grande S, Bosisio R, Villa M, Galli G, Sirtori C, Galli C. Dept. of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Virgin Olive Oil Study (VOLOS):vasoprotective potential of extra virgin olive oil in mildly dyslipidemic patients. Eur J Nutr. 2005 Mar;44(2):121-7. Epub 2004 May5. PMID: 15309433 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Galli C. University of Milan, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Milan, Italy. The effect of minor constituents of olive oil on cardiovascular disease: new findings. Nutr Rev. 1998 May;56(5 Pt 1):142-7. PMID: 9624884 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o mehanizmu delovanja:

– Kubo I, Kinst-Hori I. Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley 94720-3112, USA. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the olive oil flavor compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 1999Nov;47(11):4574-8. PMID: 10552852 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Ledesma A, Villalba M, Batanero E, Rodriguez R. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Molecular cloning and expression of active Ole e3, a major allergen from olive-tree pollen and member of a novel family ofCa2+-binding proteins (polcalcins) involved in allergy. Eur J Biochem. 1998Dec 1;258(2):454-9. PMID: 9874211 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Pieroni A, Heimler D, Pieters L, van Poel B, Vlietinck AJ. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium. In vitro anti- complementary activity of flavonoids from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Pharmazie. 1996 Oct;51(10):765-8. PMID: 8941947 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Farmakokinetične študije:

– Caruso D, Visioli F, Patelli R, Galli C, Galli G. Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Urinary excretion of olive oil phenols and their metabolites in humans. Metabolism. 2001 Dec;50(12):1426-8. PMID:11735087 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Covas MI, Miro-Casas E, Fito M, Farre-Albadalejo M, Gimeno E, Marrugat J, De La Torre R. Lipids and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain. Bioavailability of tyrosol, an antioxidant phenolic compound present in wine and olive oil, in humans. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2003;29(5-6):203-6. PMID: 15134375 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Heredia A, Ruiz-Gutierrez V, Felizon B, Guillen R, Jimenez A, Fernandez- Bolanos J. Instituto de la Grasa y sus Derivados (CSIC), Sevilla, Spain. Apparent digestibility of dietary fibre and other components in table olives. Nahrung. 1993;37(3):226-33. PMID: 8395658 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Miro-Casas E, Covas MI, Farre M, Fito M, Ortuno J, Weinbrenner T, Roset P, de la Torre R. Unitat de Farmacologia de l’Institut Municipal d’Investigació Mèdica (URAF-IMIM), Doctor Aiguader No. 80, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Hydroxytyrosol disposition in humans. Clin Chem. 2003 Jun;49(6 Pt 1):945-52. PMID: 12765992 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Vissers MN, Zock PL, Roodenburg AJ, Leenen R, Katan MB. Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans. J Nutr. 2002Mar;132(3):409-17. PMID: 11880564 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Galli C. Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milano, Italy. Phenolics from olive oil and its waste products. Biological activities in in vitro and in vivo studies.
World Rev Nutr Diet. 2001;88:233-7. PMID: 11935962 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Visioli F, Galli C, Grande S, Colonnelli K, Patelli C, Galli G, Caruso D. Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, 20133 Milan, Italy. Hydroxytyrosol excretion differs between rats and humans and depends on the vehicle of administration. J Nutr. 2003 Aug;133(8):2612-5. PMID:12888646 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o učinkih pri alergiji na cvetni prah:

– Alvarez-Cuesta E, Aragoneses-Gilsanz E, Martin-Garcia C, Berges-Gimeno P, Gonzalez-Mancebo E, Cuesta-Herranz J. Servicio de Alergia. Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain. Immunotherapy with depigmented glutaraldehyde-polymerized extracts: changes in quality of life. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005 May;35(5):572-8. Erratum in: Clin Exp Allergy. 2005Nov;35(11):1504. PMID: 15898977 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Barber D, Polo F, Lombardero M, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. ALK-Abelló S.A., Madrid. The importance of minor allergens in allergen standardization. Arb Paul Ehrlich Inst Bundesamt Sera Impfstoffe Frankf A M. 2006;(95):128-34; discussion 134, 155. PMID: 17393732 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Barral P, Villalba M, Rodriguez R, Batanero E. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The role of major olive pollen allergens Ole e 1, Ole e 9, andOle e 10 on mice sensitization. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006Mar;96(3):466-71. PMID: 16597082 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Batanero E, Crespo JF, Monsalve RI, Martin-Esteban M, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutens, Madrid, Spain. IgE- binding and histamine- release capabilities of the main carbohydrate component isolated from the major allergen of olive tree pollen, Ole e 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999Jan;103(1 Pt 1):147-53. PMID: 9893198 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Batanero E, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Glycosylation site of the major allergen from olive tree pollen. Allergenic implications of the carbohydrate moiety. Mol Immunol. 1994 Jan;31(1):31-7. PMID: 8302297 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Casanovas M, Guerra F, Moreno C, Miguel R, Maranon F, Daza JC. Laboratorios CBF-LETI, S.A., Madrid, Spain. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of preseasonal treatment with allergenic extracts of Olea europaea pollen administered sublingually. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1994 Nov- Dec;4(6):305-14. PMID: 7735519 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Conde Hernandez J, Conde Hernandez P, Gonzalez Quevedo Tejerina MT, Conde Alcaniz MA, Conde Alcaniz EM, Crespo Moreira P, Cabanillas Platero M. Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, Spain. Antigenic and allergenic differences between 16 different cultivars of Olea europaea. Allergy.2002;57 Suppl 71:60-5. PMID: 12173273 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– De Linares C, Nieto-Lugilde D, Alba F, Diaz de la Guardia C, Galan C, Trigo MM. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Detection of airborne allergen (Ole e 1) in relation to Olea europaea pollen in S Spain. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007 Jan;37(1):125-32. PMID:17210050 [PubMed – in process].
– Duffort O, Palomares O, Lombardero M, Villalba M, Barber D, Rodriguez R, Polo F. Departamento de Investigación y Desarrollo, ALK-ABELLO, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, España. Variability of Ole e 9 allergen in olive pollen extracts: relevance of minor allergens in immunotherapy treatments. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2006;140(2):131-8. Epub2006 Apr 3. PMID: 16601350 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Fernandez-Caldas E, Carnes J, Iraola V, Casanovas M. Research and Development, Laboratorios LETI S.L., Madrid, Spain. Comparison of the allergenicity and Ole e 1 content of 6 varieties of Olea europaea pollen collected during 5 consecutive years. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2007May;98(5):464-70. PMID: 17521031 [PubMed – in process].
– Florido Lopez JF, Quiralte Enriquez J, Arias de Saavedra Alias JM, Saenz de San Pedro B, Martin Casanez E. Unidad de Alergia, Hospital Universitario Ciudad de Jaen, Jaen, Spain. An allergen from Olea europaea pollen (Ole e 7) is associated with plant-derived food anaphylaxis. Allergy. 2002;57 Suppl71:53-9. PMID: 12173271 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Kirmaz C, Yuksel H, Bayrak P, Yilmaz O. Celal Bayar University, Medical Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Immunology and Allergy. Turkey. Symptoms of the olive pollen allergy: do they really occur only in the pollination season?. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2005;15(2):140-5. PMID:16047715 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Ledesma A, Moral V, Villalba M, Salinas J, Rodriguez R. Dpto. Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Ca2+-binding allergens from olive pollen exhibit biochemical and immunological activity when expressed in stable transgenic Arabidopsis. FEBS J. 2006 Oct;273(19):4425-34. Epub 2006 Sep 5. PMID: 16956374 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Liccardi G, Russo M, Saggese M, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Department of Chest Diseases, Hospital A. Cardarelli. Evaluation of serum specific IgE and skin responsiveness to allergenic extracts of Oleaceae pollens (Olea europaea, Fraxinus excelsior and Ligustrum vulgare) “in patients with respiratory allergy. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 1995 Jan-Feb;23(1):41-6. PMID: 7631595 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Lombardero M, Quirce S, Duffort O, Barber D, Carpizo J, Chamorro MJ, Lezaun A, Carreira J. Research Department, Alergia e Inmunología Abelló SA, Madrid, Spain. Monoclonal antibodies against Olea europaea major allergen: allergenic activity of affinity-purified allergen and depleted extract and development of a radioimmunoassay for the quantitation of the allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992 Apr;89(4):884-94. PMID: 1373162 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Palomares O, Villalba M, Quiralte J, Rodriguez R. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. Allergenic contribution of the IgE- reactive domains of the 1,3-beta-glucanase Ole e 9: diagnostic value in olive pollen allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006 Jul;97(1):61-5. PMID:16892783 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Palomares O, Batanero E, Canamero M, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Química, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Hospital Ruber Internacional, Spain. Prophylactic intranasal treatment with fragments of 1,3-beta-glucanase olive pollen allergen prevents airway inflammation in a murine model of type I allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2006;139(3):175-80. Epub 2006 Jan 26. PMID: 16439855 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Pajaron MJ, Vila L, Prieto I, Resano A, Sanz ML, Oehling AK. Department of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Cross-reactivity of Olea europaea with other Oleaceae species in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Allergy. 1997Aug;52(8):829-35. PMID: 9284982 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Villalba M, Batanero E, Lopez-Otin C, Sanchez LM, Monsalve RI, Gonzalez de la Pena MA, Lahoz C, Rodriguez R. Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The amino acid sequence of Ole e I, the major allergen from olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen. Eur J Biochem. 1993 Sep 15;216(3):863-9. PMID:8404906 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Wheeler AW. Bencard Allergy Unit, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, Surrey, U.K. Hypersensitivity to the allergens of the pollen from the olive tree (Olea europaea). Clin Exp Allergy. 1992 Dec;22(12):1052-7. PMID: 1486533 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

Študije o kemični sestavi:

– Agati G, Pinelli P, Cortes Ebner S, Romani A, Cartelat A, Cerovic ZG. Istituto di Fisica Applicata ‘Nello Carrara’, CNR, Via Madonna del Piano (Edificio C), I-
50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy. Nondestructive evaluation of anthocyanins in olive (Olea europaea) fruits by in situ chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. JAgric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1354-63. PMID: 15740006 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Amelio M, Rizzo R, Varazini F. Fratelli Carli SpA, Imperia, Italy. Determination of sterols, erythrodiol, uvaol and alkanols in olive oils using combined solid- phase extraction, high- performance liquid chromatographic and high-resolution gas chromatographic techniques. J Chromatogr. 1992 Aug 14;606(2):179-85. PMID: 1430013 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Bianco A, Melchioni C, Ramunno A, Romeo G, Uccella N. Dipartimento di Chimica dell’Università degli Studi di Roma La Sapiernza, e Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare del CNR Piazzale Aldo Moro 5 00185 Roma, Italy. Phenolic components of Olea europaea isolation of tyrosol derivatives. Nat Prod Res.2004 Feb;18(1):29-32. PMID: 14974614 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Botia JM, Ortuno A, Benavente-Garcia O, Baidez AG, Frias J, Marcos D, Del Rio JA. Plant Biology Department, University of Murcia, Espinardo, Spain. Modulation of the biosynthesis of some phenolic compounds in Olea europaea L. fruits: their influence on olive oil quality. J Agric Food Chem. 2001Jan;49(1):355-8. PMID: 11305254 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Briante R, La Cara F, Febbraio F, Patumi M, Nucci R. Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine ed Enzimologia del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Marconi 10, 80125 Napoli, Italy. Bioactive derivatives from oleuropein by a biotransformation on Olea europaea leaf extracts. J Biotechnol. 2002 Feb14;93(2):109-19. PMID: 11738718 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Briante R, Patumi M, Febbraio F, Nucci R. Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine del CNR, Via Marconi 10-80125 Napoli, Italy. Production of highly purified hydroxytyrosol from Olea europaea leaf extract biotransformed by hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidase. J Biotechnol. 2004 Jul 1;111(1):67-77. PMID: 15196771 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Campeol E, Flamini G, Cioni PL, Morelli I, D’Andrea F, Cremonini R. Dipartimento di Chimica Bioorganica e Biofarmacia, Università di Pisa, via Bonanno 33, I-56126 Pisa, Italy. 1,5-Anhydroxylitol from leaves of Olea europaea. Carbohydr Res. 2004 Nov 15;339(16):2731-2. PMID: 15519332 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Campeol E, Flamini G, Cioni PL, Morelli I, Cremonini R, Ceccarini L. Dipartimento di Chimica Bioorganica e Biofarmacia, Università di Pisa, via Bonanno 33, 56126 Pisa, Italy. Volatile fractions from three cultivars of Olea europaea L. collected in two different seasons. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Mar26;51(7):1994-9. PMID: 12643664 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Corpas FJ, Fernandez-Ocana A, Carreras A, Valderrama R, Luque F, Esteban FJ, Rodriguez-Serrano M, Chaki M, Pedrajas JR, Sandalio LM, del Rio LA, Barroso JB. Departamento de Bioquímica, Biología Celular y Molecular de Plantas, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, Granada, Spain. The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006 Jul;47(7):984-94.Epub 2006 Jun 9. PMID: 16766574 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– D’Angeli S, Altamura MM. Dipartimento Biologia Vegetale, Università La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. Osmotin induces cold protection in olive trees by affecting programmed cell death and cytoskeleton organization. Planta. 2007 Apr;225(5):1147-63. Epub 2006 Nov 4. PMID:17086398 [PubMed – in process].
– de Laurentis N, Stefanizzi L, Milillo MA, Tantillo G. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Bari, Italy. Flavonoids from leaves of Olea europaea L. cultivars. Ann Pharm Fr. 1998;56(6):268-73. PMID:9872014 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Ficarra P, Ficarra R, de Pasquale A, Monforte MT, Calabro ML. Dipartimento Farmaco Chimico, Università di Messina. HPLC analysis of oleuropein and some flavonoids in leaf and bud of Olea europaea L. Farmaco. 1991Jun;46(6):803-15. PMID: 1772565 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Gomez-Rico A, Salvador MD, La Greca M, Fregapane G. Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain. Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7130-6. PMID: 16968073 [PubMed indexed for MEDLINE].
– Japon-Lujan R, Ruiz-Jimenez J, de Castro MD. Department of AnalyticalChemistry, University of Córdoba, Campus of Rabanales, Annex C-3, 14071Córdoba, Spain. Discrimination and classification of olive tree varieties and cultivation zones by biophenol contents. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec27;54(26):9706-12. PMID: 17177490 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Karioti A, Chatzopoulou A, Bilia AR, Liakopoulos G, Stavrianakou S, Skaltsa H. Department of Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products, School of Pharmacy, Athens, Greece. Novel Secoiridoid glucosides in Olea europaea leaves suffering from boron deficiency. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006Aug;70(8):1898-903. PMID: 16926502 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Lorenzi V, Maury J, Casanova J, Berti L. Université de Corse, UMR 6134CNRS, quartier Grossetti, BP 52, 20250 Corte, France. Purification, product characterization and kinetic properties of lipoxygenase from olive fruit (Olea europaea L.). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006 Jul-Sep;44(7-9):450-4. Epub 2006Sep 18. PMID: 17011785 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Perez-Bonilla M, Salido S, van Beek TA, Linares-Palomino PJ, Altarejos J, Nogueras M, Sanchez A. Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain. Isolation and identification of radical scavengers in olive tree (Olea europaea) wood. J Chromatogr A. 2006 Apr 21;1112(1-2):311-8. Epub 2006
Jan 19. PMID: 16426626 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Ranalli A, Contento S, Lucera L, Di Febo M, Marchegiani D, Di Fonzo V. Istituto Sperimentale per l’Elaiotecnica, Viale Petruzzi 75, 65013 Città S. Angelo, Pescara, Italy. Factors affecting the contents of iridoid oleuropein in olive leaves (Olea europaea L.). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Jan 25;54(2):434-40. PMID: 16417301 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Roca M, Minguez-Mosquera MI. Departamento de Biotecnología deAlimentos, Instituto de la Grasa, (CSIC), Avda. Padre García Tejero, 4, Sevilla41012, Spain. Carotenoid levels during the period of growth and ripening in fruits of different olive varieties (Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina). J PlantPhysiol. 2003 May;160(5):451-9. PMID: 12806772 [PubMed – indexed forMEDLINE].
– Romani A, Mulinacci N, Pinelli P, Vincieri FF, Cimato A. Dipartimento diScienze Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via Gino Capponi 9,50121 Firenze, Italy. Polyphenolic content in five tuscany cultivars of Olea europaea L. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Mar;47(3):964-7. PMID: 10552399[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Ryan D, Prenzler PD, Lavee S, Antolovich M, Robards K. School of Science and Technology and Farrer Centre, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga 2678, Australia. Quantitative changes in phenolic content during physiological development of the olive (Olea europaea) cultivar Hardy’s Mammoth. J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Apr 23;51(9):2532-8. PMID: 12696932 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Saimaru H, Orihara Y, Tansakul P, Kang YH, Shibuya M, Ebizuka Y. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. Production of triterpene acids by cell suspension cultures of Olea europaea. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2007May;55(5):784-8. PMID: 17473469 [PubMed – in process].
– Salas JJ, Sanchez J. Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Sevilla, Spain. Alcohol dehydrogenases from olive (Olea europaea) fruit. Phytochemistry. 1998May;48(1):35-40. PMID: 9621451 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Savournin C, Baghdikian B, Elias R, Dargouth-Kesraoui F, Boukef K, Balansard G. Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie, Faculté de Pharmacie, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 5, France.
Rapid high- performance liquid chromatography analysis for the quantitative determination of oleuropein in Olea europaea leaves. J Agric Food Chem. 2001
Feb;49(2):618-21. PMID: 11262001 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Shasha B, Leibowitz J. Oleuropeic acid: a new compound from Olea europaea. Nature. 1959 Dec 26;184(Suppl 26):2019-20. PMID: 14445614 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Shibuya M, Zhang H, Endo A, Shishikura K, Kushiro T, Ebizuka Y. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan. Two branches of the lupeol synthase gene in the
molecular evolution of plant oxidosqualene cyclases. Eur J Biochem. 1999 Nov;266(1):302-7. PMID:10542078 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Stiti N, Triki S, Hartmann MA. Laboratoire de Biochimie des Lipides, Faculté des Sciences, 1060, Tunis, Tunisia. Formation of Triterpenoids throughout Olea europaea Fruit Ontogeny. Lipids. 2007
Feb;42(1):55-67. Epub 2007 Jan12. PMID: 17393211 [PubMed – in process].
– Tabera J, Guinda A, Ruiz-Rodríguez A, Señoráns FJ, Ibáñez E, Albi T, Reglero G. Area de Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid,
Spain. Countercurrent supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation of high-added- value compounds from a hexane extract of olive leaves. J Agric Food Chem.
2004 Jul 28;52(15):4774-9. PMID: 15264913 [PubMed – indexed forMEDLINE].
– Vissers MN, Zock PL, Katan MB. Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review.
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– Zamora R, Alaiz M, Hidalgo FJ. Instituto de la Grasa, CSIC, Avenida Padre García Tejero 4, 41012 Sevilla, Spain. Influence of cultivar and fruit ripening on olive (Olea europaea) fruit protein
content, composition, and antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Sep;49(9):4267-70. PMID: 11559121 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].
– Williams M, Harwood JL. School of Molecular and Medical Biosciences, University of Wales College of Cardiff, Wales, U.K. Alternative pathways for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in olive (Olea
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– Williams M, Salas JJ, Sanchez J, Harwood JL. School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, UK. Lipoxygenase pathway in olive callus cultures (Olea europaea). Phytochemistry. 2000 Jan;53(1):13-9.
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